Bass 1208Climate Science 2(1+1)
Agrometeorology – definition, aim and scope. Factors and elements of weather and climate. Composition and structure of atmosphere. Air and soil temperature regimes, atmospheric humidity, types of clouds and precipitation, hails and frost. Cyclones, anticyclones and thunder storms. Solar radiations components and effect on plant growth. Effect of weather and climate on the growth and development of crops. Climatic normals for crops and trees. Agro climatic zones of India. Evaporation and transpiration. Climate change: Understanding climate change and its Consequences. Global warming and its effects on Forest. Forest and climate change: Vulnerability and adaptability - Evidence of forest disturbance due to climate change –Climate change influence on agro-forestry- Climate resilient forestry. Economic worth of carbon storage in forest – Forest and UN convention on climate change - NATCOM initiatives –Kyoto protocol, awareness about climate change. National action plan for climate change.
1 Agrometeorology aim and scope
2 Concepts of weather and climate. Macro, meso, micro and phytoclimate.
3 Laws of radiation - solar constant - short wave and long wave radiation - composition of the atmosphere; absorption by carbon dioxide, water vapour and ozone.
4 Stratification of atmosphere - troposphere, stratosphere mesosphere and thermosphere. Temperature inversion; effects on air pollution; ionosphere and homosphere.
5-6 Meteorological elements – temperature; factors affecting temperature at a place - latitude, altitude, nearness to sea, prevailing winds, ocean currents, topography, condition of atmosphere. Isothermal charts, diurnal variation of air and soil temperature, cardinal temperatures.
7 Atmospheric pressure; units; variation with height; isobars; pressure gradient and Coriolis force; geostrophic wind, general circulation, trade and antitrade winds, cyclones and anticyclones, Beaufort's scale.
8 Humidity; saturated and actual vapour pressure; absolute, specific and relative humidity, psychrometry; diurnal variation of humidity.
9 Forms of precipitation - rainfall, frost, snow, fog; isohyets. Classification of clouds, cloud seeding for agriculture.
10 Cyclones and anticyclones and thuderstorms
11-12 Spectral distribution of solar radiation. Radiation balance - albedo; radiation distribution in plant canopy - net radiation; radiation instruments; sensible heat flux and air temperature leaf temperature; thermoperiodism; growing degree days
13 Moisture factor in plant growth - Evapotranspiration - measurement and computation
14 Climatic and agroclimatic classification - Koppen and Thornthwaite's methods; agroclimatic classification of India and Kerala.
15 Understanding climate change – global warming- GHG emissions-Consequences of climate change Kyoto Protocol.
16 Global warming effects on Forest. Forest and climate change mitigation – Vulnerability and adaptability
17 Evidence of forest disturbance due to climate change –Climate change influence on agroforestry- Climate resilient forestry
18 Climate change during 20th century – Historical perspectives of climate change monitoring and mitigation- Global initiatives- basic concepts on Rio Summit- WMO- UNEP-UNFCCC-IPCC- NATCOM initiatives- IPCC assessment reports, INCCA
Study of temperature instruments, pressure instruments, humidity instruments, wind instruments, rain instrument and wind rose. Solar radiation instruments with pyranometer. Layout of an agromet observatory and types. Measurement of wind and evaporation. Measurement of sunshine hours. Measurement of soil temperature and dew. Estimation of greenhouse gases into atmosphere.
1. Agromet Observatory - choice of site and layout.
2. Installation of stevenson screen and thermometers, and soil thermometers.
3. Installation of windvane and anemometer.
4. Installation of rain gauges and sunshine recorder.
5. Installation of evaporimeter and dew gauge.
6. Recording and tabulation of the observations.
7. Measurement of air temperature - Stevenson screen; dry bulb, wet bulb maximum and minimum thermometers.
8. Measurement of soil temperature - soil thermometers.
9. Measurement of wind speed - cup anemometer,Measurement of wind direction - windvane.
10. Rainfall measurement - FRP raingauge.
11. Rainfall measurement - self recordingraingauge.
12. Measurement of evaporation - open pan evaporimeter
13. Measurement of duration of sunshine - Sunshine recorder.
14. Measurement of humidity and vapour pressure using psychrometer.
15. Measurement of dew - Duvdevani dew gauge.
16. Thermograph, Hygrograph.
17. Estimation of soil respiration
18. Final practical examination